What is dementia? Its causes, symptoms, types, and precautions


If you break the word dementia, you will find that ‘de’ means ‘without’ and ‘mentia’ means ‘mind’, that is, without mind or out of the mind. But it does not mean that dementia happens when the brain stops working. Let us know what exactly the dementia disease is.

What is dementia?
Dementia is a disease that mostly occurs in older people. It is not a disease. Due to the deterioration in the brain cells, a person may have changes in normal behaviour. The symptoms or effects caused by these changes are known as Dementia. These deteriorations can happen due to ageing or damage due to an accident. A person suffering from this disease goes mentally weak though not many changes physically. Due to this mental disability, he needs the help of another person to perform his daily tasks.

Causes of dementia-
As mentioned above, dementia is not a disease in itself but it is the name of certain symptoms. These symptoms appear when the brain is damaged due to stress, depression, anxiety, severe shock or Alzheimer’s, etc. Alzheimer’s is one of the main causes of dementia.

Our brain is divided into many parts and each part has a different function. All these parts work together while we perform any task. When there is a defect in any one part of the brain then the brain is not able to function properly. There can be many more reasons for this malfunction, such as damage to the head due to an accident or injury and loss of contact between some brain cells etc. For this reason, the behaviour of a person suffering from dementia changes, and his feelings and thinking also changes.

Other causes of dementia may include brain tumours, clotting or HIV infection, etc.

Symptoms of dementia-
There is a big problem prevalent in society. We do not give due importance to mental diseases nor do we consider mental patients as real patients. People make fun of a person who suffers from any mental disease and due to that, he is not able to perform certain tasks. Next time if you see someone suffering from the symptoms given below, do not make a joke about his condition rather support him to enable him to take adequate treatment. Some of the major symptoms of dementia are:

1. A person troubled by this problem finds it difficult to understand anything and he keeps repeating.

2. Missing common courtesy, no control over language and body language.

3. Not being able to remember old things, not being able to learn any new work.

4. Not being able to take any decision, diminishing power of thinking, and understanding.

5. Reduced contact with family and society, lost in thoughts.

6. Screaming and crying.

7. Don’t remember to drink, forget to eat.

8. Not being able to remember the names of known people.

9. Forgetting home address, not knowing the prevalent situation in the country.

10. Forgetting days, dates, forgetting to read and write, forget to keep things in place, forget to wear clothes, etc.

11. Not being able to calculate.

12. Faecal or urine incontinence.

13. Forgetting oneself or others. Getting confused between people or relations.

14. Considering oneself in past, not knowing the present time.

15. To become so attached to a particular person and makes it difficult for that person to stay away from him
The problem of dementia gradually increases and when it is at its peak then the person becomes completely dependent on other people. Based on these symptoms, do not just assume that a person has dementia because there can be other reasons as well. Only after several tests can the doctor tell if someone has dementia or not.

Types of dementia
The types of dementia can only be determined based on symptoms and severity of the condition of a person. Some dementias are incurable but some dementias are curable.

1. Alzheimer’s
It is the most common and predominant type of dementia, in which the size of the nerves in the brain increases, making the person’s brain smaller. Due to some chemical reactions in the brain, a special type of protein is formed, which causes this change in the brain’s nerves.

2. Parkinson-
When a person’s nervous system is affected due to neurodegeneration, the possibility of developing dementia increases. The patient suffering from this may find difficulty in driving and also feels unable to make small decisions in many aspects of life.

3. Levy Bodies Dementia-
In this type of dementia, a protein called alpha-synuclein accumulates in the cortex and due to this, its memory is disturbed. With this, problems of sleep, deterioration of body balance, etc. can also occur.

4. Front temporal dementia-
Change occurs in the personality, behaviour, way of talking, voice, etc. of a person suffering from this type of dementia. The patient is unable to understand language and dialect and he may also have some problems in reading and writing. This type of dementia usually originates from diseases like Pick’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

5. Mixed dementia-
As the name itself suggests, in this dementia, a person has symptoms of several types of dementia at the same time. It is a fatal type of dementia.

Dementia treatment-
Unfortunately, medical science does not yet have any precise treatment for dementia. Even experts have not yet agreed with the reasons for this disease. And there is no way doctors can replace dead cells or make them workable again.
According to some doctors, some problems caused by dementia can be limited to some extent by drugs but it cannot be considered a complete cure for dementia.